Microclimate Model Input Data

Michael R. Kearney

2019-10-08

Model mode settings

Name Units Allowed Range Description
writecsv - 0 (off) or 1 (on) make Fortran program write output as csv files
microdaily - 0 (off) or 1 (on) run in daily mode (initial conditions from previous day)
runshade - 0 (off) or 1 (on) run the model twice, once for each shade level
runmoist - 0 (off) or 1 (on) run soil moisture model
snowmodel - 0 (off) or 1 (on) run the snow model
hourly - 0 (off) or 1 (on) run the model from hourly weather inputs
IR - 0 or 1 longwave radiation algorithm
message - 0 or 1 integrator messages
fail - integer integrator failure count before quitting

Time and location parameters

Name Units Allowed Range Description
doynum days positive integer number of days to run the model
doy day-of-year 1-365 vector of days of year (length must equal doynum)
idayst - 1-doynum start day (usually 1)
ida - 1-doynum end day (usually value of doynum)
HEMIS - 1 (N) or 2 (S) hemisphere to run
ALAT degrees 0-90 latitude (degrees)
AMINUT dec. minutes 0-60 latitude (minutes)
ALONG degrees 0-180 longitude (degrees)
ALMINT dec. minutes 0-60 longitude (minutes)
ALREF degrees 0-180 reference longitude (degrees) for time zone
EC - 0.0034 to 0.058 eccenricity of the earth’s orbit (presently 0.0167238)

Air and wind vertical profile parameters

Name Units Allowed Range Description
RUF m 0.01-200 roughness height
Refhyt m 0.50-10 reference height for air temp, wind speed and humidity input data
Usrhyt m > 0.005, < Refhyt local height at which to compute air temp, wind speed and humidity
ZH m > 0 (or else not used) heat transfer roughness height (m)
D0 m > 0 zero plane displacement correction factor (m) used with ZH
Z01 m 0 or (> Z02, < ZH2) 1st segment, roughness height\(^1\)
Z02 m 0 or (> RUF, < Z01) 2nd segment, roughness height\(^1\)
ZH1 m 0 or (> ZH2, < Refhyt) 1st segment, height above surface\(^1\)
ZH2 m 0 or (> RUF, < ZH1) 2nd segment, height above surface\(^1\)

\(^1\)Set to 0 if no experimental data

Terrain and shading parameters

Name Units Allowed Range Description
ALTT m 0-10,000 elevation
slope decimal degrees 0-90 slope
azmuth decimal degrees 0-360 aspect (0 is north)
hori decimal degrees 0-90 horizon angles\(^1\)
VIEWF - 0-1 view factor to sky\(^2\)
MINSHADES % 0-100 minimum shade\(^3\)
MAXSHADES % 0-100 maximum shade\(^{3,4}\)
PCTWETS % 0-100 percentage of substrate unit area that is wet\(^{3,5}\)

\(^{1}\)angle to the effective horizon, due to e.g. hills, buildings, in 24 directions from 0 degrees azimuth (north) clockwise in 15 degree intervals

\(^{2}\)Fraction of sky obscured by terrain

\(^{3}\)vector of length = doynum

\(^{4}\)must be greater than minimum shade

\(^{5}\)drives evaporation - set internally when runmoist==1

Substrate profile settings

Name Units Allowed Range Description
DEP cm 0-1000 vector of 10 depths\(^1\)
ERR - >0 integrator error (typically 1.5-2)
tannul °C -80 - +60 annual mean temperature
soilinit °C -80 - +60 initial substrate temperature profile\(^1\)

\(^{1}\)Acting as nodes for substrate heat budget calculations. Must start at 0 and nodes must be closely spaced near the surface. Typical depth profile c(0., 2.5, 5., 10., 15, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200)

\(^{2}\)Vector of length 10, corresponding to depths specified in variable DEP

Time varying environmental data

Name Units Allowed Range Description
TIMINS h 0-23 time of minima for air temp, wind, humidity and cloud cover\(^1\)
TIMAXS h 0-23 time of maxima for air temp, wind, humidity and cloud cover\(^2\)
TMINN °C -80 - +60 minimum air temperature (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^3\)
TMAXX °C -80 - +60 maximum air temperature (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^3\)
RHMINN % 0-100 minimum relative humidity (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^3\)
RHMAXX % 0-100 maximum relative humidity (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^3\)
WNMINN m s\(^{-1}\) 0-100 minimum wind speed (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^3\)
WNMAXX m s\(^{-1}\) 0-100 maximum wind speed (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^3\)
CCMINN % 0-100 minimum cloud cover; vector of length = doynum
CCMAXX % 0-100 maximum cloud cover; vector of length = doynum
RAINFALL mm 0-2000 daily total rainfall; vector of length = doynum
tannulrun °C -80 - +60 daily deep soil temperature; vector of length = doynum
moists decimal % 0-1 predefined soil daily moisture profile through time\(^4\)
TAIRhr °C -80 - +60 hourly air temperature (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^5\)
RHhr % 0-100 hourly relative humidity (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^5\)
WNhr m s\(^{-1}\) 0-100 hourly wind speed (at reference height, Refhyt)\(^5\)
CLDhr % 0-100 hourly cloud cover\(^5\)
SOLRhr W m\(^{2}\) 0-1367 hourly solar radiation\(^5\)
RAINhr mm 0-2000 hourly rainfall\(^5\)

\(^{1}\)Vector of 4 integers, air temp & wind mins relative to sunrise, humidity and cloud cover mins relative to solar noon - typical TIMINS vector c(0, 0, 1, 1).

\(^{2}\)Vector of 4 integers, air temp & wind maxs relative to solar noon, humidity and cloud cover maxs relative to sunrise - typical TIMAXS vector c(1, 1, 0, 0).

\(^{3}\)Vector of length = doynum.

\(^{4}\)Matrix of 10 rows (depths) and doynum columns. The first column is used to specify the initial soil moisture when running the soil moisture model.

\(^{5}\)Vector of length = doynum*24.

Substrate properties

Name Units Allowed Range Description
Numtyps - 1-10 number of substrate types
Nodes\(^{1,2}\) - 1-10 nodes where substrate type transitions occur
soilprops[,1]\(^{3}\) Mg m\(^{-3}\) >0 bulk density (must not exceed mineral density)
soilprops[,2]\(^{3}\) m\(^{3}\) m\(^{-3}\) >0 volumetric water content at saturation\(^{4}\)
soilprops[,3]\(^{3}\) W m\(^{-1}\) K\(^{-1}\) >0 thermal conductivity
soilprops[,4]\(^{3}\) J kg\(^{-1}\) K\(^{-1}\) >0 specific heat capacity
soilprops[,5]\(^{3}\) Mg m\(^{-3}\) >0 mineral density

\(^{1}\)Matrix of 10 rows (depths) and doynum columns

\(^{2}\)The number of nodes specified should correspond with the variable numtypes, and in turn with the number of substrate types specified in soilprops in the soil props matrix. E.g. for a uniform profile, the first row of Nodes would be 10 (deepest soil node - the subsequent nodes all being left as 0), Numtyps would be 1, and only one and only the first row of soilprops would be filled, the rest being zero. At the other extreme, if all nodes were to have a different substrate type, values for a given row of each Nodes column would be 1, 2, …, 10 and a different value would be specified for each row of each soilprops column.

\(^{3}\)Matrix of 10 rows (depths) and 6 columns

\(^{4}\)at a matric potential of 0.1 bar

Soil moisture parameters

Name Units Allowed Range Description
PE J kg\(^{-1}\) 0.7-3.7 air entry water potential; vector of 19 values\(^{1}\)
KS kg s m\(^{-3}\) 1 x \(10^{-5}\) saturated conductivity; vector of 19 values\(^{1}\)
BB - 1.7-7.6 Campbell’s ‘b’ parameter; vector of 19 values\(^{1}\)
BD Mg m\(^{-3}\) >0 bulk density (should be matched to same variable in the soilprops matrix)
DD Mg m\(^{-3}\) >0 soil mineral density (should be matched to same variable in the soilprops matrix)
L m\(^{3}\) m\(^{-3}\) 0-90 root density; vector of 19 values\(^{1}\)
R1 m 0-90 root radius
RW m\(^{3}\) kg\(^{-1}\) s\(^{-1}\) 0-90 resistance per unit length of root
RL m\(^{3}\) kg\(^{-1}\) s\(^{-1}\) 0-90 resistance per unit length of leaf
PC J kg\(^{-1}\) 0-90 critical leaf water potential for stomatal closure
SP - >0 stability parameter for stomatal closure equation
IM kg >0 maximum allowable mass balance error
MAXCOUNT - >0 maximum iterations for mass balance
LAI - 0-90 leaf area index, used to partition traspiration/evaporation from PET
rainmult - >0 rainfall multiplier to impose a catchment
maxpool mm >0 max depth for surface water pooling\(^{2}\)
evenrain - 1 or 2 even rainfall over 24hrs (1) or one event at midnight (2)

\(^{1}\)The 19 values represent the 10 depths as specified in the DEP vector, and an extra 9 depths in between.

\(^{2}\)To account for runoff - can be used to simulate a wetland.

Snow model parameters

Name Units Allowed Range Description
snowtemp °C -80 - 80 temperature at which precipitation falls as snow
snowdens Mg m\(^{-3}\) 0.05-1 snow density
densfun - - parameters of snow density function\(^{1}\)
snowmelt decimal % 0-1 proportion of calculated snowmelt that doesn’t refreeze
undercatch - >=1 undercatch multipier for converting rainfall to snow
rainmelt - 0-2 parameter for rain melting snow\(^{2}\)
snowcond - >0 effective thermal conductivity of snow \(W/mK\)
intercept - 0-1 proportion of snow intercepted by vegetation under shaded conditions
grasshade - 0 or 1 if 1, shade is not present when snow is present (because shade is cast by grass/low veg)

\(^{1}\) Four values, c(a, b, c, d) representing either 1) slope (a) and intercept (b, Mg m-3) of model of snow density as a linear function of snowpack age (days) if first two values are nonzero, or, if all values are non-zero, b) following the exponential function of Sturm et al. 2010 J. of Hydromet. 11:1380-1394 where density = (a - b) x (1 - exp(-c x depth - d x age)) + b, where a and b are the maximum and minimum densities, respectively, in Mg m-3, and c and d are fitted parameters. If all values are zero, i.e. c(0,0,0,0), then a fixed density is used as specified by parameter snowdens

\(^{2}\)For equation from Anderson’s SNOW-17 model that melts snow with rainfall as a function of air temp (typical value 1.25)

Intertidal simulation parameters (currently experimental and untested)

Name Units Allowed Range Description
tides[1:doynum,1] - 0 or 1 tide in (1) or out(0); vector of length doynum
tides[1:doynum,2] °C -80 - 80 sea water temperature; vector of length doynum
tides[1:doynum,3] % - % surface wetness from wave splash; vector of length doynum